Discussion:
Printing characters outside of the ASCII range
(too old to reply)
danielk
2012-11-09 17:17:53 UTC
Permalink
I'm converting an application to Python 3. The app works fine on Python 2.

Simply put, this simple one-liner:

print(chr(254))

errors out with:

Traceback (most recent call last):
File "D:\home\python\tst.py", line 1, in <module>
print(chr(254))
File "C:\Python33\lib\encodings\cp437.py", line 19, in encode
return codecs.charmap_encode(input,self.errors,encoding_map)[0]
UnicodeEncodeError: 'charmap' codec can't encode character '\xfe' in position 0: character maps to <undefined>

I'm using this character as a delimiter in my application.

What do I have to do to convert this string so that it does not error out?
Ian Kelly
2012-11-09 17:34:51 UTC
Permalink
Post by danielk
I'm converting an application to Python 3. The app works fine on Python 2.
print(chr(254))
File "D:\home\python\tst.py", line 1, in <module>
print(chr(254))
File "C:\Python33\lib\encodings\cp437.py", line 19, in encode
return codecs.charmap_encode(input,self.errors,encoding_map)[0]
UnicodeEncodeError: 'charmap' codec can't encode character '\xfe' in position 0: character maps to <undefined>
I'm using this character as a delimiter in my application.
What do I have to do to convert this string so that it does not error out?
In Python 2, chr(254) means the byte 254.

In Python 3, chr(254) means the Unicode character with code point 254,
which is "?". This character does not exist in CP 437, so it fails to
encode it for output.

If what you really want is the byte, then use b'\xfe' or bytes([254]) instead.
Andrew Berg
2012-11-09 17:39:50 UTC
Permalink
Post by danielk
I'm converting an application to Python 3. The app works fine on Python 2.
print(chr(254))
File "D:\home\python\tst.py", line 1, in <module>
print(chr(254))
File "C:\Python33\lib\encodings\cp437.py", line 19, in encode
return codecs.charmap_encode(input,self.errors,encoding_map)[0]
UnicodeEncodeError: 'charmap' codec can't encode character '\xfe' in position 0: character maps to <undefined>
I'm using this character as a delimiter in my application.
What do I have to do to convert this string so that it does not error out?
That character is outside of cp437 - the default terminal encoding on
many Windows systems. You will either need to change the code page to
something that supports the character (if you're going to change it, you
might as well change it to cp65001 since you are using 3.3), catch the
error and replace the character with something that is in the current
codepage (don't assume cp437; it is not the default everywhere), or use
a different character completely. If it works on Python 2, it's probably
changing the character automatically to a replacement character or you
were using IDLE, which is graphical and is not subject to the weird
encoding system of terminals.
--
CPython 3.3.0 | Windows NT 6.1.7601.17835
Dave Angel
2012-11-09 17:47:42 UTC
Permalink
Post by danielk
I'm converting an application to Python 3. The app works fine on Python 2.
print(chr(254))
File "D:\home\python\tst.py", line 1, in <module>
print(chr(254))
File "C:\Python33\lib\encodings\cp437.py", line 19, in encode
return codecs.charmap_encode(input,self.errors,encoding_map)[0]
UnicodeEncodeError: 'charmap' codec can't encode character '\xfe' in position 0: character maps to <undefined>
I'm using this character as a delimiter in my application.
What do I have to do to convert this string so that it does not error out?
What character do you want? What characters do your console handle
directly? What does a "delimiter" mean for your particular console?

Or are you just printing it for the fun of it, and the real purpose is
for further processing, which will not go to the console?

What kind of things will it be separating? (strings, bytes ?) Clearly
you originally picked it as something unlikely to occur in those elements.

When those things are combined with a separator between, how are the
results going to be used? Saved to a file? Printed to console? What?
--
DaveA
danielk
2012-11-09 21:17:39 UTC
Permalink
Post by Dave Angel
Post by danielk
I'm converting an application to Python 3. The app works fine on Python 2.
print(chr(254))
File "D:\home\python\tst.py", line 1, in <module>
print(chr(254))
File "C:\Python33\lib\encodings\cp437.py", line 19, in encode
return codecs.charmap_encode(input,self.errors,encoding_map)[0]
UnicodeEncodeError: 'charmap' codec can't encode character '\xfe' in position 0: character maps to <undefined>
I'm using this character as a delimiter in my application.
What do I have to do to convert this string so that it does not error out?
What character do you want? What characters do your console handle
directly? What does a "delimiter" mean for your particular console?
Or are you just printing it for the fun of it, and the real purpose is
for further processing, which will not go to the console?
What kind of things will it be separating? (strings, bytes ?) Clearly
you originally picked it as something unlikely to occur in those elements.
When those things are combined with a separator between, how are the
results going to be used? Saved to a file? Printed to console? What?
--
DaveA
The database I'm using stores information as a 3-dimensional array. The delimiters between elements are chr(252), chr(253) and chr(254). So a record can look like this (example only uses one of the delimiters for simplicity):

name + chr(254) + address + chr(254) + city + chr(254) + st + chr(254) + zip

The other delimiters can be embedded within each field. For example, if there were multiple addresses for 'name' then the 'address' field would look like this:

addr1 + chr(253) + addr2 + chr(253) + addr3 + etc ...

I use Python to connect to the database using subprocess.Popen to run a server process. Python requests 'actions' like 'read' and 'write' to the server process, whereby the server process performs the actions. Some actions require that the server send back information in the form of records that contain those delimiters.

I have __str__ and __repr__ methods in the classes but Python is choking on those characters. Surely, I could convert those characters on the server before sending them to Python and that is what I'm probably going to do, so guess I've answered my own question. On Python 2, it just printed the 'extended' ASCII representation.

I guess the question I have is: How do you tell Python to use a specific encoding for 'print' statements when I know there will be characters outside of the ASCII range of 0-127?
Prasad, Ramit
2012-11-09 21:34:01 UTC
Permalink
Post by danielk
The database I'm using stores information as a 3-dimensional array. The delimiters between elements are
chr(252), chr(253) and chr(254). So a record can look like this (example only uses one of the delimiters for
name + chr(254) + address + chr(254) + city + chr(254) + st + chr(254) + zip
The other delimiters can be embedded within each field. For example, if there were multiple addresses for 'name'
addr1 + chr(253) + addr2 + chr(253) + addr3 + etc ...
I use Python to connect to the database using subprocess.Popen to run a server process. Python requests
'actions' like 'read' and 'write' to the server process, whereby the server process performs the actions. Some
actions require that the server send back information in the form of records that contain those delimiters.
I have __str__ and __repr__ methods in the classes but Python is choking on those characters. Surely, I could
convert those characters on the server before sending them to Python and that is what I'm probably going to do,
so guess I've answered my own question. On Python 2, it just printed the 'extended' ASCII representation.
I guess the question I have is: How do you tell Python to use a specific encoding for 'print' statements when I
know there will be characters outside of the ASCII range of 0-127?
You just need to change the string to one that is not
trying to use the ASCII codec when printing.

print(chr(253).decode('latin1')) # change latin1 to your
# chosen encoding.
?


~Ramit


This email is confidential and subject to important disclaimers and
conditions including on offers for the purchase or sale of
securities, accuracy and completeness of information, viruses,
confidentiality, legal privilege, and legal entity disclaimers,
available at http://www.jpmorgan.com/pages/disclosures/email.
Andrew Berg
2012-11-09 21:39:13 UTC
Permalink
Post by danielk
I guess the question I have is: How do you tell Python to use a specific encoding for 'print' statements when I know there will be characters outside of the ASCII range of 0-127?
You don't. It's raising that exception because the terminal cannot
display that character, not because it's using the wrong encoding. As
Ian mentioned, chr() on Python 2 and chr() on Python 3 return two
different things. I'm not very familiar with the oddities of Python 2,
but I suspect sending bytes to the terminal could work since that is
what chr() on Python 2 returns.
--
CPython 3.3.0 | Windows NT 6.1.7601.17835
danielk
2012-11-09 21:46:42 UTC
Permalink
Post by Prasad, Ramit
Post by danielk
The database I'm using stores information as a 3-dimensional array. The delimiters between elements are
chr(252), chr(253) and chr(254). So a record can look like this (example only uses one of the delimiters for
name + chr(254) + address + chr(254) + city + chr(254) + st + chr(254) + zip
The other delimiters can be embedded within each field. For example, if there were multiple addresses for 'name'
addr1 + chr(253) + addr2 + chr(253) + addr3 + etc ...
I use Python to connect to the database using subprocess.Popen to run a server process. Python requests
'actions' like 'read' and 'write' to the server process, whereby the server process performs the actions. Some
actions require that the server send back information in the form of records that contain those delimiters.
I have __str__ and __repr__ methods in the classes but Python is choking on those characters. Surely, I could
convert those characters on the server before sending them to Python and that is what I'm probably going to do,
so guess I've answered my own question. On Python 2, it just printed the 'extended' ASCII representation.
I guess the question I have is: How do you tell Python to use a specific encoding for 'print' statements when I
know there will be characters outside of the ASCII range of 0-127?
You just need to change the string to one that is not
trying to use the ASCII codec when printing.
print(chr(253).decode('latin1')) # change latin1 to your
# chosen encoding.
?
~Ramit
This email is confidential and subject to important disclaimers and
conditions including on offers for the purchase or sale of
securities, accuracy and completeness of information, viruses,
confidentiality, legal privilege, and legal entity disclaimers,
available at http://www.jpmorgan.com/pages/disclosures/email.
D:\home\python>pytest.py
Traceback (most recent call last):
File "D:\home\python\pytest.py", line 1, in <module>
print(chr(253).decode('latin1'))
AttributeError: 'str' object has no attribute 'decode'

Do I need to import something?
Ian Kelly
2012-11-09 22:10:39 UTC
Permalink
Post by danielk
D:\home\python>pytest.py
File "D:\home\python\pytest.py", line 1, in <module>
print(chr(253).decode('latin1'))
AttributeError: 'str' object has no attribute 'decode'
Do I need to import something?
Ramit should have written "encode", not "decode". But the above still
would not work, because chr(253) gives you the character at *Unicode*
code point 253, not the character with CP437 ordinal 253 that your
terminal can actually print. The Unicode equivalents of those
Post by danielk
list(map(ord, bytes([252, 253, 254]).decode('cp437')))
[8319, 178, 9632]

So these are what you would need to encode to CP437 for printing.
Post by danielk
print(chr(8319))
?
Post by danielk
print(chr(178))
?
Post by danielk
print(chr(9632))
?

That's probably not the way you want to go about printing them,
though, unless you mean to be inserting them manually. Is the data
you get from your database a string, or a bytes object? If the
former, just do:

print(data.encode('cp437'))

If the latter, then it should be printable as is, unless it is in some
other encoding than CP437.
danielk
2012-11-11 13:42:35 UTC
Permalink
Post by Ian Kelly
Post by danielk
D:\home\python>pytest.py
File "D:\home\python\pytest.py", line 1, in <module>
print(chr(253).decode('latin1'))
AttributeError: 'str' object has no attribute 'decode'
Do I need to import something?
Ramit should have written "encode", not "decode". But the above still
would not work, because chr(253) gives you the character at *Unicode*
code point 253, not the character with CP437 ordinal 253 that your
terminal can actually print. The Unicode equivalents of those
Post by danielk
list(map(ord, bytes([252, 253, 254]).decode('cp437')))
[8319, 178, 9632]
So these are what you would need to encode to CP437 for printing.
Post by danielk
print(chr(8319))
?
Post by danielk
print(chr(178))
?
Post by danielk
print(chr(9632))
?
That's probably not the way you want to go about printing them,
though, unless you mean to be inserting them manually. Is the data
you get from your database a string, or a bytes object? If the
print(data.encode('cp437'))
If the latter, then it should be printable as is, unless it is in some
other encoding than CP437.
Ian's solution gives me what I need (thanks Ian!). But I notice a difference between '__str__' and '__repr__'.

class Pytest(str):
def __init__(self, data = None):
if data == None: data = ""
self.data = data

def __repr__(self):
return (self.data).encode('cp437')
Post by Ian Kelly
Post by danielk
import pytest
p = pytest.Pytest("abc" + chr(178) + "def")
print(p)
abc?def
Post by Ian Kelly
Post by danielk
print(p.data)
abc?def
Post by Ian Kelly
Post by danielk
print(type(p.data))
<class 'str'>
Post by Ian Kelly
Post by danielk
import pytest
p = pytest.Pytest("abc" + chr(178) + "def")
print(p)
Traceback (most recent call last):
File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
TypeError: __str__ returned non-string (type bytes)

Why is '__str__' behaving differently than '__repr__' ? I'd like to be able to use '__str__' because the result is not executable code, it's just a string of the record contents.

The documentation for the 'encode' method says: "Return an encoded version of the string as a bytes object." Yet when I displayed the type, it said it was <class 'str'>, which I'm taking to be 'type string', or can a 'string' also be 'a string of bytes' ?

I'm trying to get my head around all this codecs/unicode stuff. I haven't had to deal with it until now but I'm determined to not let it get the best of me :-)

My goals are:

a) display a 'raw' database record with the delimiters intact, and
b) allow the client to create a string that represents a database record. So, if they know the record format then they should be able to create a database object like it does above, but with the chr(25x) characters. I will handle the conversion of the chr(25x) characters internally.
Lele Gaifax
2012-11-11 17:09:31 UTC
Permalink
Post by danielk
Ian's solution gives me what I need (thanks Ian!). But I notice a
difference between '__str__' and '__repr__'.
if data == None: data = ""
self.data = data
return (self.data).encode('cp437')
The correct way of comparing with None (and in general with
?singletons?) is with the ?is? operator, not with ?==?.
Post by danielk
import pytest
p = pytest.Pytest("abc" + chr(178) + "def")
print(p)
File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
TypeError: __str__ returned non-string (type bytes)
In Python 3.3 there is one kind of string, the one that under Python 2.x
was called ?unicode?. When you encode such a string with a specific
encoding you obtain a plain ?bytes array?. No surprise that the
__str__() method complains, it's called like that for a reason :)
Post by danielk
I'm trying to get my head around all this codecs/unicode stuff. I
haven't had to deal with it until now but I'm determined to not let it
get the best of me :-)
Two good readings on the subject:

- http://nedbatchelder.com/text/unipain.html
- http://www.joelonsoftware.com/articles/Unicode.html

ciao, lele.
--
nickname: Lele Gaifax | Quando vivr? di quello che ho pensato ieri
real: Emanuele Gaifas | comincer? ad aver paura di chi mi copia.
lele at metapensiero.it | -- Fortunato Depero, 1929.
danielk
2012-11-11 13:42:35 UTC
Permalink
Post by Ian Kelly
Post by danielk
D:\home\python>pytest.py
File "D:\home\python\pytest.py", line 1, in <module>
print(chr(253).decode('latin1'))
AttributeError: 'str' object has no attribute 'decode'
Do I need to import something?
Ramit should have written "encode", not "decode". But the above still
would not work, because chr(253) gives you the character at *Unicode*
code point 253, not the character with CP437 ordinal 253 that your
terminal can actually print. The Unicode equivalents of those
Post by danielk
list(map(ord, bytes([252, 253, 254]).decode('cp437')))
[8319, 178, 9632]
So these are what you would need to encode to CP437 for printing.
Post by danielk
print(chr(8319))
?
Post by danielk
print(chr(178))
?
Post by danielk
print(chr(9632))
?
That's probably not the way you want to go about printing them,
though, unless you mean to be inserting them manually. Is the data
you get from your database a string, or a bytes object? If the
print(data.encode('cp437'))
If the latter, then it should be printable as is, unless it is in some
other encoding than CP437.
Ian's solution gives me what I need (thanks Ian!). But I notice a difference between '__str__' and '__repr__'.

class Pytest(str):
def __init__(self, data = None):
if data == None: data = ""
self.data = data

def __repr__(self):
return (self.data).encode('cp437')
Post by Ian Kelly
Post by danielk
import pytest
p = pytest.Pytest("abc" + chr(178) + "def")
print(p)
abc?def
Post by Ian Kelly
Post by danielk
print(p.data)
abc?def
Post by Ian Kelly
Post by danielk
print(type(p.data))
<class 'str'>
Post by Ian Kelly
Post by danielk
import pytest
p = pytest.Pytest("abc" + chr(178) + "def")
print(p)
Traceback (most recent call last):
File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
TypeError: __str__ returned non-string (type bytes)

Why is '__str__' behaving differently than '__repr__' ? I'd like to be able to use '__str__' because the result is not executable code, it's just a string of the record contents.

The documentation for the 'encode' method says: "Return an encoded version of the string as a bytes object." Yet when I displayed the type, it said it was <class 'str'>, which I'm taking to be 'type string', or can a 'string' also be 'a string of bytes' ?

I'm trying to get my head around all this codecs/unicode stuff. I haven't had to deal with it until now but I'm determined to not let it get the best of me :-)

My goals are:

a) display a 'raw' database record with the delimiters intact, and
b) allow the client to create a string that represents a database record. So, if they know the record format then they should be able to create a database object like it does above, but with the chr(25x) characters. I will handle the conversion of the chr(25x) characters internally.
danielk
2012-11-09 21:46:42 UTC
Permalink
Post by Prasad, Ramit
Post by danielk
The database I'm using stores information as a 3-dimensional array. The delimiters between elements are
chr(252), chr(253) and chr(254). So a record can look like this (example only uses one of the delimiters for
name + chr(254) + address + chr(254) + city + chr(254) + st + chr(254) + zip
The other delimiters can be embedded within each field. For example, if there were multiple addresses for 'name'
addr1 + chr(253) + addr2 + chr(253) + addr3 + etc ...
I use Python to connect to the database using subprocess.Popen to run a server process. Python requests
'actions' like 'read' and 'write' to the server process, whereby the server process performs the actions. Some
actions require that the server send back information in the form of records that contain those delimiters.
I have __str__ and __repr__ methods in the classes but Python is choking on those characters. Surely, I could
convert those characters on the server before sending them to Python and that is what I'm probably going to do,
so guess I've answered my own question. On Python 2, it just printed the 'extended' ASCII representation.
I guess the question I have is: How do you tell Python to use a specific encoding for 'print' statements when I
know there will be characters outside of the ASCII range of 0-127?
You just need to change the string to one that is not
trying to use the ASCII codec when printing.
print(chr(253).decode('latin1')) # change latin1 to your
# chosen encoding.
?
~Ramit
This email is confidential and subject to important disclaimers and
conditions including on offers for the purchase or sale of
securities, accuracy and completeness of information, viruses,
confidentiality, legal privilege, and legal entity disclaimers,
available at http://www.jpmorgan.com/pages/disclosures/email.
D:\home\python>pytest.py
Traceback (most recent call last):
File "D:\home\python\pytest.py", line 1, in <module>
print(chr(253).decode('latin1'))
AttributeError: 'str' object has no attribute 'decode'

Do I need to import something?
danielk
2012-11-09 21:17:39 UTC
Permalink
Post by Dave Angel
Post by danielk
I'm converting an application to Python 3. The app works fine on Python 2.
print(chr(254))
File "D:\home\python\tst.py", line 1, in <module>
print(chr(254))
File "C:\Python33\lib\encodings\cp437.py", line 19, in encode
return codecs.charmap_encode(input,self.errors,encoding_map)[0]
UnicodeEncodeError: 'charmap' codec can't encode character '\xfe' in position 0: character maps to <undefined>
I'm using this character as a delimiter in my application.
What do I have to do to convert this string so that it does not error out?
What character do you want? What characters do your console handle
directly? What does a "delimiter" mean for your particular console?
Or are you just printing it for the fun of it, and the real purpose is
for further processing, which will not go to the console?
What kind of things will it be separating? (strings, bytes ?) Clearly
you originally picked it as something unlikely to occur in those elements.
When those things are combined with a separator between, how are the
results going to be used? Saved to a file? Printed to console? What?
--
DaveA
The database I'm using stores information as a 3-dimensional array. The delimiters between elements are chr(252), chr(253) and chr(254). So a record can look like this (example only uses one of the delimiters for simplicity):

name + chr(254) + address + chr(254) + city + chr(254) + st + chr(254) + zip

The other delimiters can be embedded within each field. For example, if there were multiple addresses for 'name' then the 'address' field would look like this:

addr1 + chr(253) + addr2 + chr(253) + addr3 + etc ...

I use Python to connect to the database using subprocess.Popen to run a server process. Python requests 'actions' like 'read' and 'write' to the server process, whereby the server process performs the actions. Some actions require that the server send back information in the form of records that contain those delimiters.

I have __str__ and __repr__ methods in the classes but Python is choking on those characters. Surely, I could convert those characters on the server before sending them to Python and that is what I'm probably going to do, so guess I've answered my own question. On Python 2, it just printed the 'extended' ASCII representation.

I guess the question I have is: How do you tell Python to use a specific encoding for 'print' statements when I know there will be characters outside of the ASCII range of 0-127?
wxjmfauth
2012-11-10 10:09:25 UTC
Permalink
Post by danielk
I'm converting an application to Python 3. The app works fine on Python 2.
print(chr(254))
File "D:\home\python\tst.py", line 1, in <module>
print(chr(254))
File "C:\Python33\lib\encodings\cp437.py", line 19, in encode
return codecs.charmap_encode(input,self.errors,encoding_map)[0]
UnicodeEncodeError: 'charmap' codec can't encode character '\xfe' in position 0: character maps to <undefined>
I'm using this character as a delimiter in my application.
What do I have to do to convert this string so that it does not error out?
-----

There is nothing wrong in having the character with
the code point 0xfe in the cp437 coding scheme as
a delimiter.

If it is coming from a byte string, you should
decode it properly
Post by danielk
b'=\xfe=\xfe='.decode('cp437')
'=?=?='

or you can use directly the unicode equivalent
Post by danielk
'=\u25a0=\u25a0='
'=?=?='

That's for "input". For "output" see:
http://groups.google.com/group/comp.lang.python/browse_thread/thread/c29f2f7f5a4962e8#


The choice of that character as a delimiter is not wrong.
It's a little bit unfortunate, because it falls high in
the "unicode table".
Post by danielk
import fourbiunicode as fu
fu.UnicodeBlock('\u25a0')
'Geometric Shapes'
Post by danielk
fu.UnicodeBlock(b'\xfe'.decode('cp437'))
'Geometric Shapes'

(Another form of explanation)
jmf
Thomas Rachel
2012-11-11 14:40:18 UTC
Permalink
Post by danielk
I'm using this character as a delimiter in my application.
Then you probably use the *byte* 254 as opposed to the *character* 254.

So it might be better to either switch to byte strings, or output the
representation of the string instead of itself.

So do print(repr(chr(254))) or, for byte strings, print(bytes([254])).


Thomas
diccon.tesson
2014-03-19 13:11:48 UTC
Permalink
Your handling Pick Multi value fields aren't you ;)
Just hit the same issue, thanks all here for various solutions.
Interfacing with OpenQM / Scarlet DME here.
Mark Lawrence
2014-03-19 14:19:14 UTC
Permalink
Post by diccon.tesson
Your handling Pick Multi value fields aren't you ;)
Just hit the same issue, thanks all here for various solutions.
Interfacing with OpenQM / Scarlet DME here.
The context is conspicious by its absence. In future would you please
be kind enough to provide some.
--
My fellow Pythonistas, ask not what our language can do for you, ask
what you can do for our language.

Mark Lawrence

---
This email is free from viruses and malware because avast! Antivirus protection is active.
http://www.avast.com
Zachary Ware
2014-03-19 14:43:30 UTC
Permalink
Post by diccon.tesson
Your handling Pick Multi value fields aren't you ;)
Just hit the same issue, thanks all here for various solutions.
Interfacing with OpenQM / Scarlet DME here.
For future posts, please be sure to quote what you're replying to.
Google Groups makes things easy to find and reply to, but this is a
mailing list. When we receive a mail with just a subject line and a
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old threads.
Post by diccon.tesson
The context is conspicious by its absence. In future would you please be
kind enough to provide some.
In a fit of curiosity, I went looking:
https://mail.python.org/pipermail/python-list/2012-November/634803.html
I'm almost surprised it wasn't any older than that :)

Ironically, on my way down the November 2012 archive page, I noticed a
long thread about "Obnoxious postings from Google Groups".
--
Zach
Mark Lawrence
2014-03-19 15:14:20 UTC
Permalink
Post by Zachary Ware
Ironically, on my way down the November 2012 archive page, I noticed a
long thread about "Obnoxious postings from Google Groups".
Thankfully the number of grotty postings from gg has dropped
considerably. Sadly our resident unicode expert quite deliberately
continues to use it in a manner which is designed to annoy.
--
My fellow Pythonistas, ask not what our language can do for you, ask
what you can do for our language.

Mark Lawrence

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